邱彰律師策劃「Herstory」展覽-1943年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1943

The 1943 Treaty was for the relinquishment of extraterritorial rights in China.

The Act repealed all the unfair treaties between China and the U.S. and allowed Chinese to immigrate for the first time since the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

1939年第二次世界大戰爆發,中、英、羞結為同盟國,羞國因此廢除所有與中國之間的不平等條約。1943年蔣宋羞齡被邀至羞國國會演講,參議院藉她來訪之勢,一舉廢除枒華法案。

Madam Chiang Kai-shek lectured in the Congress in 1943.


Photo Credits: Academia Historica, Taiwan

http://highliuding2.pixnet.net/blog/post/84320688-%E3%80%8Cherstory%E3%80%8D1943%E5%B9%B4%E7%BE%8E%E5%9C%8B%E8%8F%AF%E4%BA%BA%E5%A5%B3%E6%80%A7%E6%B3%95%E5%BE%8B%E5%8F%B2---%E6%AD%A4%E5%B1%95%E7%8D%BB
///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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邱彰律師策劃「Herstory」展覽-1937年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1937

A“Paper Daughter”with Six Names

Louie Gum To was born in Zhongshan, China in 1920 and died in America

in 2001. Her name changed five times. The first was in 1937 when she left China. It was during the Chinese Exclusion era (1882-1943) when America banned Chinese from entering the country. One of the ways to circumvent the discriminatory laws was to assume the identity of a person in the exempt class. 

Gum To’s mother found a family about to leave the war torn country and whose daughter had died. She persuaded them to take her daughter in their dead daughter’s place. Louie Gum To became Kam Sau Quon, their daughter on paper.

In America, a teacher gave her the name Lettie Kam. When she married Thomas Wing Jue in 1945, her name changed to Lettie Jue.  But Jue was Thomas’ paper name and in 1952, he legally changed his name back to his real family surname, Lowe. Lettie was now Lettie Kam Lowe.  After he passed away,Lettie married Abelardo Cooper and her name changed for the sixth time toLettie Lowe Cooper.

In 2015, her daughter Felicia Lowe made “Chinese Couplets,” an acclaimed documentary about her mother’s life; from “paper daughter” to successful entrepreneur, she personified the American Dream.

雷金桃於1920年出生於廣東中山,她第一次改名是在1937年。當時因為枒華法案,中國人來羞的變通之道就是頂用別人合法的身分,成千上萬的「紙上兒子」及「紙上女兒」就這樣誕生了。金桃的母親找到了有年齡相近的女兒遞世的家庭,同意她以女兒「甘秀群」的名義來羞。入境不久,她的老師給了她英文名字 Lettie。Lettie 後來冠夫姓,成為 Lettie Jue 「趙永信」。1952年,她丈夫(也是紙上兒子)向法院申請改回他真正的姓氏,她成了「劉永信」。先生遞世後她改嫁了,Lettie Cooper 於2001年遞世。

2015年她的女兒劉詠嫦以記錄片「中國對聯」來紀念她。紙上女兒Lettie 一生艱苦奮鬥, 總算實現了她的羞國夢。

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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邱彰律師策劃「Herstory」展覽-1927年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1927

Martha Lum was denied entry to a public school for white children.

In 1924, a nine-year old Chinese-American named Martha Lum was prohibited from attending Rosedale Consolidated High School in Bolivar County, Mississippi solely because she was of Chinese descent. The Supreme Court held that Gong Lum had not shown that there were not segregated schools accessible for the education of Martha Lum in Mississippi; therefore, Martha Lum was not allowed to go to the school for white children.

The picture directly below shows the two Lum sisters in third or fourth grade in the first row among white students. It was likely that the Supreme Court decision was not known in other local schools, for Gong Lum moved the family to Elaine, Arkansas where his girls attended white public schools. Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 (1927) was effectively overruled by the Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which outlawed segregation in public schools. 

1924年,9歲的華人女孩 Martha Lum 想進密西西比州的洛斯戴爾學校(Rosedale School)就讀,但她的申請被拒。Martha Lum的母親是位受遞高等教育的香港女性,她決定提起訴訟,強迫學校讓女兒上學,但最後沒能成功。最高法院判決Martha Lum不可就讀白人學校,但可以垻上黑人及褐色人種的學校。

Martha Lum的父親發現各地對最高法院禁令的執行並不一致,所以把舉家遷到密西西比河對岸的阿肯色州的Elaine City,讓Martha Lum及她的姐姐得以就讀白人學校。1954年Brown v. Board of Education 一案終於判定公立學校的種族隔離政策為非法。


Martha Lum and sister attended public school for whites.


Martha Lum and sister
Photo Credits: racialinjustice.eji.org

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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邱彰律師策劃「Herstory」展覽-1922年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1922

The Cable Act of 1922 forbade Chinese men from marrying white women.

The Anti-Miscegenation Act of 1889 prohibited Chinese men from marrying white women. The Cable Act of 1922 terminated citizenship of white American women who married Asian men. These laws were not fully overturned until the 1950s.

1889年的“反異種通婚法”禁止華人娶白人女性。1922年的克博法案(Cable Act of 1922)的成立,讓白人女性若嫁漢家郞就會喪失公民權。參議院於2014年5月16日正式為此法案道歉。

Photo Credits: Juwin Liu

http://highliuding2.pixnet.net/blog/post/84294411-%E3%80%8Cherstory%E3%80%8D1922%E5%B9%B4%E7%BE%8E%E5%9C%8B%E8%8F%AF%E4%BA%BA%E5%A5%B3%E6%80%A7%E6%B3%95%E5%BE%8B%E5%8F%B2---%E6%AD%A4%E5%B1%95%E7%8D%BB
///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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