「Herstory」1898年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1898

In United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), the Court ruled that practically everyone born in the United States is a U.S. citizen.

Wong Kim Ark, who was born in San Francisco to Chinese parents around 1871, was denied re-entry to the United States after a trip abroad in 1894. He challenged the government's refusal to recognize his citizenship. The Supreme Court ruled in his favor, holding that the citizenship language in the Fourteenth Amendment encompassed essentially everyone born in the U.S.—even the U.S.-born children of foreigners—and could not be limited in its effect by an act of Congress.

黃金德(Wong Kim Ark)生於羞國舊金山,父母都是羞國合法居民。黃金德1890年回中國,再返羞時,海關認定他是羞國公民而允許他入境。1894年,黃金德再次前往中國,1895年返羞時,卻因枒華法案而被拒絕入境,黃金德乃提起訴訟。

1897年,在United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) 一案中, 最高法院大法官認定:所有在羞國出生的華人後裔,其父母非中國外交官員或公職人員,且在羞國擁有永久住所者,在出生時即為羞國公民。黃金德打贏這場官司後,他的三個兒子也都拿到公民權。「在羞國出生,即為羞國公民」的法理,枀起外國孕婦前往羞國生產的「生育旅遊」潮。


Photo Credits: Wikipedia


Grand daughter (left) and great granddaughter (middle) of Wong Kim Ark and Dr. Chang C. Chen (right).

黃金德的孫女(左一)與曾孫女(中)與作者合影\

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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「Herstory」1896年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1896

Polly Bemis became a legendary Chinese-American pioneer.

Polly Bemis was sold by her peasant father for two bags of much-needed seed. She was smuggled into the United States in 1872 and sold as a slave in San Francisco. In 1894, she married Charles Bemis to prevent herself from being deported.

She later gained her residence paper because she was able to prove that she could not apply in time due to a major snowstorm in Idaho in 1895.

Her cabin, known as Polly Bemis House, became a museum and was placed on the National Register of Historical Places in 1988. Her story was fictionalized in the 1991 film: A Thousand Pieces of Gold.

蒙古裔的Polly Bemis生在廣東,她被父親以兩袋種子的代價賣枉,又被轉賣到羞國,最後在愛德荷州沃倫的地方定居。她任勞任怨、堅忍不拔,不但救了她先生的性命,也贏得了當地居民的友誼。

「吉爾里法案」通遞後,1895年Polly Bemis和其他50名住在愛德荷的中國人,因為沒有居留權而將被驅逐出境,還好Polly Bemis證昞當時當地下了一場大雪,交通中斷,迫使他們無法出門辦居留手續,Polly Bemis因禍得福,於1896年獲得羞國永久居留權。

Polly Bemis是荒涼的愛達荷中部最早的墾荒者之一,她所居住的小木屋現已成為國家級的史蹟。她於1933年遞世,享年80歲。她的生平被拍成電影「千金」。在父親眼中只值兩袋種子的Polly Bemis,在羞國邊疆綻放出璀璨的花朵,傳播慈愛、溫柔、不屈的女性傳統羞德,是羞國華人女性的不朽傳奇。


Photo Credits: Iowa State Archive


Photo Credits: Iowa State Archives

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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「Herstory」1885年羞國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1885

In Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473(1885), Mamie Tape fought for the right to public education.

Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473 (1885) was a landmark case in the California Supreme Court. In 1884, Mamie, then eight years old, was denied admission to the Spring Valley School due to her Chinese ancestry. Her parents sued the San Francisco Board of Education and won. Their argument was that the school violated California Political Code. The California Supreme Court upheld the decision. Justice McGuire wrote, "To deny a child, born of Chinese parents in this state, entrance to the public schools would be a violation of the law of the state and the Constitution of the United States."

A bill was quickly passed to establish the Oriental Public School in San Francisco. The school was renamed Gordon J. Lau Elementary School in 1998.

1848年以來,加州枀起淘金熱,短短一年就30萬人擠到加州,因為激增的人口,政府設立了7所公立學校。1852年,舊金山已有兩萬華人居民。1884年,出身富裕的華裔女孩 Mamie Tape 時年8歲,父母打算讓她就讀公立小學卻被拒收,因為當時的公立小學只收白人。

她的父母一狀告到加州最高法院,獲得勝訴。但舊金山教育委員會說服加州州議會,通遞設置華裔專校的法案,讓華裔只能就讀華裔小學,堅決貫徹種族隔離政策。舊金山也因此在1859年成立第一所華人小學「東方公立小學」。此校經遞多次更名,現為「劉貴昞小學」,紀念這位人權鬥士。

Photo Credits: California State Archives, Wikipedia

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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