Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition,1982 Vincent Chin’s murder was a hate-crime.

2017-01-04 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

Due to the increasing sales of Japanese cars to the U.S., in 1979, many autoworkers in Detroit were laid off. Vincent Chin, then 27 years old, received racially charged comments and was beaten to death. Two perpetrators Ebens and Nitz received lenient sentencing in a plea bargain which caused public outrage. The case became a rallying point for the Asian American community. Ebens and Nitz were put on trial for violating Chin's civil rights.

Because the subsequent federal prosecution was the result of public pressure from a coalition of many Asian ethnic organizations, Vincent Chin's murder is often considered the beginning of a pan-ethnic Asian American movement. Christine Choy and Renee Tajima-Pena produced a documentary “Who Killed Vincent Chin?” and it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 1987.

1979年日本車大量銷美,美國汽車工人失業並失控。1982年,27歲的陳果仁被失業的白人汽車工人打死,兇嫌被判無罪,華人社區震怒。後來經過華人社團極力爭取,本案由聯邦檢察官提起公訴,並被定位為種族仇恨犯罪。

陳母余瓊芳(Lily Chin),在陳果仁6歲時從一家香港的孤兒院領養他。案發後,她向兇嫌提起民事求償,裁定得賠145萬美元,但兇嫌無力支付,至今已累積超過500萬美元。余瓊芳不堪觸景傷情,離美返回中國,她於2002年去世,在去世前她設立陳果仁獎學金。Christine Choy 和 Renee Tajima-Pena製作的紀錄片「誰殺了陳果仁?( Who Killed Vincent Chin ?)」獲得1987年奧斯卡最佳紀錄片獎提名。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 79 Patricia Cowett was the first Chinese-American judge.

2017-01-04 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

Patricia Yim Cowett became the first Chinese-American woman judge when she was appointed by California Governor Brown as San Diego Superior Court judge.

第一位華裔女性法官嚴美玉(Patricia Cowett)在1979年就職,由當時加州州長布朗任命為聖地牙哥市立法院法官。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1977 Mi Chu won her employment with the Library of Congress under the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972.

2017-01-04 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

Mi Chu was the first Chinese-American woman to win a sex discrimination lawsuit under the Equal Employment Opportunity Act.

Originally from Taiwan, she obtained a Ph.D. from Harvard University. In 1977, she applied for a job as a librarian with the Library of Congress. She was denied even an interview. She sued and won a sex discrimination-in-employment case against the Library of Congress (Mi Chu Wiens, Plaintiff v. Daniel J. Boorstin, Defendant, Civil Action No. 78–1034, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia). Her lawyer sent her a note: "Think of it, Mi Chu Wiens has defeated the United States of America."

She worked in the Library of Congress for 35 years and retired in 2012.

居蜜(Chu Mi)畢業於台大,擁有哈佛大學的碩士及博士學位,精通中英法三國語言,任職副教授,也有許多專業著作。

1977年,她向美國國會圖書館亞洲部求職,連面試的機會都被拒絕,館方的理由是她缺乏3年專業職等的經驗。居蜜於是向聯邦法院提起性別歧視訴訟,法官發現被雇用的男士的專業程度與經驗比不上居蜜,違反1964年「民權法」以及1972年「就業機會平等法」,因此將此職位判給了居蜜。她的律師寫字條給她:想想看,居蜜竟然打贏了美國政府。

居蜜後來在國會圖書館工作35年,於2012年退休。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1974 Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974) helped shape the bilingual education system.

2017-01-04 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

In 1974, the Supreme Court ruled in Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974) that school districts must help non-English speaking students learn English. This case reflects the changes in cultural perspectives towards diversity and immigration. The Bilingual Education Act was passed and the school districts were directly funded by the federal government.

劉訴尼考爾斯案是由舊金山華人學生提告的,因為他們英文不流利,在受教育的權利上被歧視。最高法院判決,英語非母語的學生可受到特別輔導及雙語教育,聯邦並通過「Bilingual Education Act」,由聯邦政府直接補助各地學區,使得英語非母語的學生都有機會及資源學習英文。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1967 Freedom to marry was upheld in Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

Loving v. Virginia is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage. The case was brought by Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, who had been sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other. Their marriage violated the state's anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people classified as "white" and people classified as "colored". The Supreme Court's unanimous decision determined that this prohibition was unconstitutional, reversing Pace v. Alabama (1883) and ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.

在美國各州,異族通婚一直被視為非法,直到1958年,黑白通婚的愛夫婦提起訴訟,最高法院認定婚姻乃基本人權,所以各州禁止異族通婚的法律一律違憲。愛夫婦不是華人,卻為華人爭取到最基本的婚姻權。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1956 The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 changed the face of the American population.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 marked fundamental changes in America’s immigration policy. Immigration increased fourfold in five years. The Act abolished the national origins quota system started in the 1920’s, and replaced it with a system that focused on immigrants' skills and family relationships with citizens or U.S. residents.

During the debate of this law on the Senate floor, Senator Ted Kennedy, speaking of the effects of the Act, said, "...our cities will not be flooded with a million immigrants annually.... Secondly, the ethnic mix of this country will not be upset...." These assertions would later prove grossly inaccurate. The 1965 Act had greatly changed the face of the American population. Minority had become majority in many states and partially resulting in the election of the first black American President Barrack Obama.

1965年「美國移民與國籍法」是影響美國移民政策最重要的移民法,過去的大熔爐理論被「沙拉拼盤」的新概念所取代,使得各民族仍能保有它的文化特色。該法改變了1920年以來以「國籍」為主的移民政策,歡迎有「專業能力」的人移民。

當年極力推動本法的參議員泰德.甘迺迪曾向國會保證:美國人口的組成不會受到影響,也不會影響白人的生計。法案執行的結果正好相反。此法通過後,移民人數在五年內增加四倍,以亞州及中南美州移民最多,少數民族在許多州成為多數,並促成歐巴馬於 2008 年被選為第一位黑人美國總統。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1964 Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

The Civil rights movement was at its peak when Dr. Martin Luther King delivered his famous “I have a dream” speech on August 28, 1963. Three months later, President John F. Kennedy was murdered and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed. The Act outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and public accommodations.

1964年,民權運動因金恩博士發表「我有一個夢」的演說而進入高潮。同年,甘迺迪總統被殺,民權法案終於通過,從此不得因種族、膚色、宗教、性別、國籍而歧視,也不得在投票時、或在學校及公共場所,因種族因素而實施任何差別待遇。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1953 Eileen Chan became U.S. citizen under the Refugee Relief Act of 1953.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

Under The Refugee Relief Act of 1953, a refugee is defined as someone who lacks the essentials of life. There was a 2,000 refugee quota allocated to the Chinese living in Hong Kong. Famous writer Eileen Chang applied in 1955 under this Act and her application was approved quickly. Many of Eileen Chang works were made into movies including Li Ang’s “Lust, Caution”.

1953年,美國國會通過「難民救濟法」,給難民簽證。根據該法,難民的定義是缺乏生存必須物的人,審查過程非常嚴格。該法實施至1956年,共准許了214,000位難民移民美國,其中2,000名是給居住在香港的中國內地人。大文學家張愛玲(Eileen Chang)於1952到1955年間住在香港。她在1955年根據「難民救濟法」提出申請移民美國,由於當時美國新聞處處長麥卡錫做她的擔保人,所以很快就被批准了。張愛玲一生著作甚豐,書迷遍及全世界,許多作品被拍成電影,如李安導演的「色,戒」。



Eileen Chang’s green card

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1945 Stories of three Amerasians

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

After World War II, American soldiers fathered many mixed-parentage children who were not accepted by the local Asian communities. Because of their torment, Congress passed the “War Brides Act” to bring them back to the land of their fathers. But no more than 3 percent found their fathers in their adoptive homeland. In 1982, Congress passed “Public Law 97-359” which officially defined “Ameriasians” as those born in Asia to a U.S. military father and an Asian mother. The law allowed them to become U.S. citizens. Examples of well-known Ameriasians are entertainers Lai Pei-Xia, Tien LuLu, Tony Wang and sportsman Zhi-long Zhen.

1939到1945年,美軍與亞洲當地的婦女所生的後代,因為不容於當地社會,美國國會遂通過「戰爭新娘法(War Brides Act of 1946)」,讓這群出生於亞洲的混血兒,得以踏上父親的國土,但只有3%的父親出面相認。越戰後,國會再於1982年通過「公法97-359(Public Law 97-359)」,正式定義「亞美混血兒」,讓他們得以移民美國。沒人知道亞美混血兒的正確數字,除了越南、菲律賓、日本,台灣也有亞美混血兒。當年曾有20萬人次的韓戰、越戰美軍來台休假,在20年間生出成千上萬的亞美混血兒。著名的亞美混血如歌手賴佩霞、田路路、王湯尼和曾任台灣立法委員的鄭志龍。

My mother is a stranger.


Tien Lulu and her grandma

They said my father was an American soldier stationed in Taiwan in 1958. My mother met him at a bar and I was born the next year. I have never met my father, I don’t even know his name.

My mother went to Japan to make a better living soon after I was born, my grandma raised me. She passed away when I was 13, my mother came back for the funeral, she promised to adopt me and even hired a lawyer for my immigration. The lawyer later told me that my mother had terminated his service, and that I would not be going to America. As an adult, I became a singer and went to Washington D.C. to perform for a group of overseas Chinese. I got the news that my mother wanted to see me. We finally met, the media went berserk, but I did not feel anything. We met in the hotel for a few minutes and parted. I have never seen her since.

田路路(Tien Lu-Lu)聽說她的父親是駐台美國大兵,母親是1958年在酒吧裡遇見他的,次年田路路就誕生了。

田路路出生不久,母親就到國外去謀生,把她交給外婆撫養,祖孫兩人相依為命。外婆常常替她染髮,不希望她被認出是混血兒。田路路13歲那年,外婆去世了,母親回來奔喪,她本來答應收養田路路,後來卻變卦了。13歲的田路路及時參加演藝工作,養活自己。因為她出色的五官及外貌,事業一度相當成功。有一次她到美國去宣慰僑胞,忽然接到母親要和她見面的訊息,兩人在機場見面,互相擁抱,旁觀的人都感動流淚,但田路路和母親完全無感,母女倆就再也沒有見過面了。

Lai Pei-Xia was her mother’s baby doll.


Lei Pei-Xia and her mother

Lai Pei-Sha ‘s mother worked as a helper for an American military family in Taipei. She noticed how respectful American men treated women. She was especially fond of their children with blue eyes and blond hair. She called them "baby doll", and she decided one day to have one her own. She later met Lai Pei-Sha’s father who was a friend of her employer.

Once Lai Pei-Sha was born, she was the baby doll her mother always dreamed of. Eventually Lai Pei-Sha found her father in the U.S. Despite the reunion, Lai Pei-Sha never talked about her father afterwards.

賴佩霞(Lai Pei-Shia)的母親曾在美國軍官家裡幫忙,她發現美國男人對女性特別尊重,他們金髮藍眼的小孩也非常可愛,於是她決定有一天也要生一個洋娃娃。後來她碰到賴佩霞的生父,賴佩霞就誕生了。

從來沒見過父親的賴佩霞,因緣際會找到了與生父聯絡的方式,她和母親於是展開萬里尋父之旅。賴佩霞當時的想法很簡單,就只是想看看自己的父親。沒想到接電話的那頭是父親現任的太太。父女重逢場面十分尷尬,但當兩人單獨相處時,雙方都哭紅了眼,賴佩霞當初在腦海裡演練過千遍的重逢畫面,早已忘的一乾二淨。只是,賴佩霞從此再也沒有跟任何人談起她的父親。

Tony Wang was reunited with his father after 41 years.


Tony Wang and mother.

Tony was born in 1973 to an American soldier stationed in Tainan and a Taiwanese mother. Although Tony never met his father, as long as he could remember, his only dream was to find him.

Shortly after Tony's birth, his mother left him to seek a better life in Japan and he was placed with her friend Po Po in Taichung. Luckily for Tony, he grew up with plenty of love and attention from Po Po and her family. As an adult, Tony catapulted to stardom as an award-winning rock musician. Despite fame & fortune, he still longed to know the father he never knew. Fast forward to 2014, Tony met Dr. Chang C. Chen, an American lawyer who was doing research on the subject of Amerasians for this exhibit. Tony gave Dr. Chen the only information he had on his father —a piece of paper with “W. D. Brown, Texas” written on the corner.

Dr. Chen tracked down 46 people with exactly the same name in Texas. Someone from the Facebook page "Tainan AB" tipped off Dr. Chen that Tony’s father could be the W.D. Brown in Cincinnati. Dr. Chen reached out to him. Her calls went unanswered. As a last ditch effort, she suggested to Tony, "Why don’t you leave him a message, and if he does not answer, we know he does not want to acknowledge your existence." Her strategy
worked. W. D. Brown returned Tony's call the very next day.

Father and son were tearfully reunited on August 1, 2014 via Skype.
In November 15, 2014, W.D. Brown visited Tony in Taiwan, 41 years
after he left.

王湯尼(Tony Wang)生於1973年,父親是駐台南美軍。父親在他出生之前被調離台灣,母親隨後到日本去謀生。住在台中的母親友人「婆婆」盡心將他撫養成人。

王湯尼於2014年遇到美國律師邱彰,後者正在做亞美混血兒的研究。王湯尼給了邱彰他手上唯一有關於父親的一紙資訊:「W. D. Brown, Texas」。

邱彰後來在德州找到46位同名同姓的人,經過台南美軍臉書網頁 Tainan AB 管理人指認現在住在辛辛那提的王湯尼生父,父子兩人於2014年8月1日涕淚交流的在網路上相認,同年11月15日,王湯尼的父親千里迢迢的趕來台灣與41歲的湯尼見面。




Tony Wang reunited with his father.

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1943 Chinese American women were proudly served in the U.S. military.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

Although the Navy refused to accept Japanese-American women throughout World War II, some Chinese-American women volunteered to serve. Marietta (Chong) Eng decided to enlist in the WAVES. The Navy trained Eng as an occupational therapist. Eng helped rehabilitate sailors and officers who had lost arms and legs in the war, teaching them to accomplish the many tasks of daily living.

Marietta Chong Eng 是位軍中的物理治療師。她出生於夏威夷,決定從軍是因為她弟弟已在海軍。她協助斷手斷腳的海軍及軍官重新學習如何處理日常生活中的活動。

Rita Chow joined the US Army Nurse Corps in 1954 as a second lieutenant. The Army assigned her as a Medical Surgery Nursing Instructor at Fitzsimmons Army Hospital in Denver, Colorado. She was soon promoted to first lieutenant and became an instructor to medical corpsmen at Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas. She was discharged from active duty in 1958 and spent the next 11 years in the Army Reserve.

Rita Chow在1954年是少尉,同年加入美國護士隊,並被陸軍指派為醫療外科護理學講師。1958年轉入後勤服務。

Colonel Yeu-Tsu "Margaret" Lee, US Army Medical Corps, graduated from Harvard Medical School and was a female surgeon.

She was one of four active duty surgeons assigned to the 13th Evacuation Hospital during Operation Desert Storm. Before World War II, American medical schools did not accept female students. Most of the males went to fight the war during World War II, which create a shortage of men. Medical schools had no alternative but to accept female medical students.

李雨珠(Yeu-Tsu)畢業於哈佛醫學院,是女外科醫師,也是海灣戰爭中美軍上校女博士。

在第二次世界大戰以前,美國醫學院是不招收女生的。二次大戰期間許多男生都去打仗了,醫學院才開始招收女生。李雨珠讀的班裡有90位學生,只有6位女生。最後李雨珠定居在夏威夷。

Captain Melissa Kuo of Manchester, Connecticut, joined the Marine Corps in 1992 and served on active duty until 1996.

上尉Melissa Kuo於1992年加入海軍,1996年退伍。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1943 Chinese American women were proudly served in the U.S. military.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

Corporal Helen M. Lee of Willows, California, joined the WAC in August 1943 and was assigned to be the Chinese translator of GI training films at Lowry Army Air Field in California.

下士Helen M. Lee在1943年8月加入WACs(The Women's Army Corps),被派作中文翻譯人員。

Sergeant Julia (Larm) Ashford joined the WAC in 1944 and served in the Pacific Theater of Operations. She remained in the Army until 1948 when she enlisted in the newly formed Air Force where she served until 1953.

中士Julia Larm Ashford在1944年被派到德國占領區駐守,後於1953年退休。

A unique group of civilian women, Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) worked directly with the Army Air Forces on the home front during World War II flying planes from factories to air bases, testing planes for mechanical problems, and towing targets for aerial gunnery students to practice shooting. WASPs performed these dangerous assignments willingly.

During the years when male pilots were needed at the front. Thirty-eight WASP died in the line of duty, one being a Chinese-American, Hazel (Ying) Lee.

Lee flew pursuit ( fighter ) aircrafts from the production factories to air bases across the continental United States. She "named" the planes she flew by inscribing Chinese characters in lipstick on the tails. Her husband was an officer in the Chinese Air Force. Lee died in a two-plane crash when her plane and that of a colleague received identical instructions from an air traffic controller on their approach to Great Falls AFB, Montana.

美國民間組織成了一個女子航空勤務飛行隊(Women Air Force Service Pilots,WASP)。這些女性為空軍飛行員服務,她們將飛機從工廠飛到空軍基地測試機械問題,為射擊訓練空投目標。當時因為男性都必須上前線,WASP就自願做這些危險任務,38位WASP成員在執行任務時死亡,其中一位就是 Hazel Ying Lee。

Hazel Ying Lee 開了一架戰鬥機,從製造廠開到空軍基地來,橫跨美國的州際,並以中文命名這架戰鬥機,還把機名用口紅寫在機尾。後來她開的飛機跟同事開的飛機對撞,在蒙塔那州 Great Falls 壯烈犧牲。

Maggie Gee started as a mechanical draftsman at Mare Island, California. She was accepted by the WASP. She took military pilots up for qualifying flights to renew their instrument ratings and co-piloted B-17 Flying Fortress bombers through mock dogfights staged to train bomber gunners.

朱美嬌(Maggie Gee)1923年生於加州柏克萊市,年少時就有志於開飛機的夢想,於1944年3月加入女子航空勤務飛行隊(WASP),被分派到內華達州內利斯空軍基地,接受飛行員軍事訓練。

Army nurse Helen (Pon) Onyett risked her life tending wounded soldiers from the landing craft that came ashore in North Africa. She was awarded the Legion of Merit for her actions during the war and retired from the Corps as a full colonel.

Helen Pon Onyett 是位護士,她在北非照顧從飛機降落時受傷的軍人,出色的表現讓她在退休時被晉升為上校。

Gail (Chin) Wong, a Chinese-American, served from 1945-1949. She later worked in a Veterans Administration hospital from 1972 until her retirement in 1988.

Gail Chin Wong 在退伍軍人醫院工作,直到 1988 年退休。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1943 Chinese American women were proudly served in the U.S. military.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

The Nisei WACs, Americans "with Japanese faces," were expected to show the Japanese what Americans of Japanese ancestry were like, and to help build bridges across a cultural gap. General MacArthur, however, did not approve of enlisted WACs serving overseas. He gave the women a choice of returning to the United States as WACs or being discharged from the Army and serving one-year contracts in Japan as civilians with US federal civil service status. All 13 agreed to stay in Japan as civil servants.

Nisei軍團被稱為有日本臉的美國人,其中包括日本人及中國人的後代,她們是為了溝通美日之間的文化差異而成軍的,但麥克阿瑟不贊成讓她們到海外服務,他給了這團女兵兩個選擇,一是回到美國繼續為WACs服務,或是從軍中退役,在日本服務一年。結果所有人都選擇留在日本。

Herstory - The Legal history of Chinese American Women Exhibition, 1943 Chinese American women were proudly served in the U.S. military.

2017-01-03 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 美國華人法律史, * 華人女性

In 1943, the Women's Army Corps recruited a unit of Chinese-American women to serve with the Army Air Forces as "Air WACs." The Army lowered the height and weight requirements for the women of this particular unit, referred to as the Madame Chiang Kai-Shek Air WAC unit. Air WACs served in a large variety of jobs, including aerial photo interpretation, air traffic control, and weather forecasting. WAC was dissolved in 1978.

1943年,一團華人女性加入美國空軍成為「Air WACs」,為了她們,空軍降低這團對高度及重量的要求,她們被稱為「蔣宋美齡空軍 WACs」,他們的工作包括對空圖的解釋、空中交通的控制及預報天氣。WAC 於1978年解散。

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