「Herstory」1896年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-24 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1896

Polly Bemis became a legendary Chinese-American pioneer.

Polly Bemis was sold by her peasant father for two bags of much-needed seed. She was smuggled into the United States in 1872 and sold as a slave in San Francisco. In 1894, she married Charles Bemis to prevent herself from being deported.

She later gained her residence paper because she was able to prove that she could not apply in time due to a major snowstorm in Idaho in 1895.

Her cabin, known as Polly Bemis House, became a museum and was placed on the National Register of Historical Places in 1988. Her story was fictionalized in the 1991 film: A Thousand Pieces of Gold.

蒙古裔的Polly Bemis生在廣東,她被父親以兩袋種子的代價賣掉,又被轉賣到美國,最後在愛德荷州沃倫的地方定居。她任勞任怨、堅忍不拔,不但救了她先生的性命,也贏得了當地居民的友誼。

「吉爾里法案」通過後,1895年Polly Bemis和其他50名住在愛德荷的中國人,因為沒有居留權而將被驅逐出境,還好Polly Bemis證明當時當地下了一場大雪,交通中斷,迫使他們無法出門辦居留手續,Polly Bemis因禍得福,於1896年獲得美國永久居留權。

Polly Bemis是荒涼的愛達荷中部最早的墾荒者之一,她所居住的小木屋現已成為國家級的史蹟。她於1933年過世,享年80歲。她的生平被拍成電影「千金」。在父親眼中只值兩袋種子的Polly Bemis,在美國邊疆綻放出璀璨的花朵,傳播慈愛、溫柔、不屈的女性傳統美德,是美國華人女性的不朽傳奇。


Photo Credits: Iowa State Archive


Photo Credits: Iowa State Archives

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1885年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1885

In Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473(1885), Mamie Tape fought for the right to public education.

Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473 (1885) was a landmark case in the California Supreme Court. In 1884, Mamie, then eight years old, was denied admission to the Spring Valley School due to her Chinese ancestry. Her parents sued the San Francisco Board of Education and won. Their argument was that the school violated California Political Code. The California Supreme Court upheld the decision. Justice McGuire wrote, "To deny a child, born of Chinese parents in this state, entrance to the public schools would be a violation of the law of the state and the Constitution of the United States."

A bill was quickly passed to establish the Oriental Public School in San Francisco. The school was renamed Gordon J. Lau Elementary School in 1998.

1848年以來,加州掀起淘金熱,短短一年就30萬人擠到加州,因為激增的人口,政府設立了7所公立學校。1852年,舊金山已有兩萬華人居民。1884年,出身富裕的華裔女孩 Mamie Tape 時年8歲,父母打算讓她就讀公立小學卻被拒收,因為當時的公立小學只收白人。

她的父母一狀告到加州最高法院,獲得勝訴。但舊金山教育委員會說服加州州議會,通過設置華裔專校的法案,讓華裔只能就讀華裔小學,堅決貫徹種族隔離政策。舊金山也因此在1859年成立第一所華人小學「東方公立小學」。此校經過多次更名,現為「劉貴明小學」,紀念這位人權鬥士。

Photo Credits: California State Archives, Wikipedia

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1882年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur in 1882.

It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in the U.S. history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S. - China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration.

The Act was initially intended to last for ten years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act becoming permanent in 1902. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent a specific ethnic group from immigrating to the United States. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act of 1943.

「排華法案」的內容為:

1. 停止華工及其眷屬境十年。

2. 不准境內華人歸化為美國公民。

3. 華人一旦回中國探親,就不能再回美國。

4. 州法院和聯邦法院不得允許華人歸化為美國公民。

在「排華法案」於1892年即將到期前,國會再通過「吉爾里法案」將「排華法案」延長十年。直到1943年,中國成為美國第二次世界大戰的盟友,「排華法案」才被廢除。

Photo Credits: Wikipedia

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

邱彰律師打贏了一個非法居留、可能被遣返的案子。

2017-10-23 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

邱彰律師今天打贏了一個非法居留、可能被遣返的案子。

客戶是40多歲的一對福建夫妻,來美國已二十多年,官司前後打了十多年才轉到我這裡。這是一個證據非常弱的案子,這對夫妻很有可能被遞解出境。

可是助理無意中提到,當事人有個十九歲美國出生的兒子陳澤民。今年8月5日,瞞著父母,加入了美國海軍陸戰隊,加入後才寫一封信告訴父母。我馬上說,如此重要的信怎麼可以不上交法庭?要求他們連夜回家取信。

今天出庭的第一件事,我就把此信交給法官和檢查官一人一份。五十多歲的女法官讀完信,臉色微紅,對客戶說:「你有個好兒子。」

在法庭的最後陳述時段,我提問當事人:你有兒子嗎?回答有。

你的兒子陳澤民多大了?19歲。

他現在在哪裡?他在今年8月5日加入了海軍陸戰隊。

他告訴你他加入海軍的決定了嗎?當時沒有。

你知道為什麼嗎?他知道我們會非常擔心。

你擔心什麼?他是我們唯一的孩子。

你現在支持他的決定嗎?是的!

為什麼?因為美國已經庇護我們這麼多年,我們想償還我們的債務。

對話至此,我看女法官眼睛有點紅了。接下來法官說:「這不是一個有力的案子。然而,我實在不能憑良心將一名海軍士兵的父母趕出這個國家。因此,我運用我的酌處權,給予他們所尋求的救濟,讓他們在美國合法居留,這樣一名海軍士兵就會知道,他是在為他的父母所在的國家而戰。」

邱彰律師策畫Herstory展覽 - 1868 Burlingame Treaty was the first equal treaty between the U.S. and China.///此展覽獻給我摯愛的陳澤民

2017-10-06 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1868

Burlingame Treaty was the first equal treaty between the U.S. and China.

Granting China most favored nation status, the Burlingame-Seward Treaty formally established friendly ties between China and the United States. The Treaty advocated equal treatment of China and a welcoming stance toward Chinese immigrants.

This Treaty also opened the door for Chinese laborers to immigrate to the U.S. During economic depression, white laborers blamed cheap Chinese laborers for their unemployment. Congress amended The Burlingame Treaty and in its place, The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882.

「蒲安臣條約」又稱「中美天津條約續增條約」,是1868年清朝與美國簽訂的第一個平等條約。在該條約中,美國給與中國最惠國待遇。「蒲安臣條約」的簽訂使得美國成為中國派遣留學生的首選國。1872年,第一批中國幼童乘船前往美國,從此掀開了中國公派留學生前往美國學習的第一頁。

邱彰律師策劃「Herstory美國巡迴展」洛杉磯展覽報導///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-05 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

邱彰律師策劃「Herstory美國巡迴展」洛杉磯展覽報導///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民


https://youtu.be/6i7NyYGADsk
20161202—宏觀僑社新聞

邱彰律師策劃Herstory芝加哥開展///此展覽獻給我摯愛的華裔兒子陳澤民

2017-10-05 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

2016.8-2016.11於芝加哥開展///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

Herstory-1875- The Page Act of 1875 forbade the entry of Chinese laborers and immoral Chinese women.///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子-邱彰律師與陳澤民

2017-10-05 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1875
The Page Act of 1875 forbade the entry of Chinese laborers and immoral Chinese women.

After the passage of the Page Act of 1875 which aimed to "end cheap Chinese laborers and immoral Chinese women," custom officials concentrated their efforts by forbidding Chinese women entering American borders. The officials believed that by preventing Chinese women from entering the U.S., Chinese laborers would realize that they could not find wives and would go back to China to establish families.


Horace F. Page(1833-1890)

Herstory-1874 In Chu Lung v. Freeman 92 U.S. 275 (1874), 22 Chinese women fought for their dignity.///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子-邱彰律師與陳澤民

2017-10-05 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

In Chu Lung v. Freeman, 92 U.S. 275, Chu Lung and 21 other Chinese women who arrived in San Francisco were classified as " lewd and debauched" and must therefore be prostitutes. Upon hearing testimony from a witness that only lewd Chinese women wore colorful belly-bands, the judge found all 22 women guilty. However, the Supreme Court sided with the women. It ruled that Congress, not the states, had the power to regulate immigration. It declared California law requiring a bond for all ill-defined class of people overstepped its boundary and that the women should be released.


Chinese girl in belly-band


The names of the 22 Chinese women in the Supreme Court files(1874)

邱彰律師策劃「Herstory美國巡迴展」洛杉磯展覽開幕式///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-05 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

2016.11洛杉磯「Herstory美國巡迴展」展覽開幕式///此展覽獻給我摯愛的兒子陳澤民

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