「Herstory」1916年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1916

Quok Shee was the longest involuntary resident of Angel Island.

Immigrant Quok Shee was the "alleged wife" of Chew Hoy Quong. When she arrived in San Francisco, she was detained and interrogated for nearly 2 years on Angel Island, mostly because Chinese women were suspected to be prostitutes in that era.

More than an inch thick, her "investigation case file" was opened in September 1916 and was not closed until August 1918. She was repeatedly interrogated, denied access to a lawyer, plagued by depression, subjected to smallpox, and was isolated from a husband who was her only contact in America, yet whom she hardly knew. The file contained 150 pages of legal maneuvering, inquisitorial interrogations, medical evaluations, intrigue court orders—all because one Chinese woman tried to enter the United States.In 1927, her husband Chew told immigration authorities that his wife had complained he was not giving her enough money and had run off with another man.

清朝腐敗,民不聊生,老百姓就算冒著生命危險, 也想盡辦法移民美國。天使島是中國移民要進入美國加州的第一道關卡,成千上萬的華人女性在此被拘禁,受盡屈辱。

20歲的郭氏(Quok Shee)於1916年到達舊金山,立刻被帶到天使島詢問。她的先生因為是美國合法居民,很快就被釋放了。但由於郭氏的答案與先生不符,因此被關了將近兩年。最後因為她的律師抗告移民局違反程序正義成功,郭氏終於重獲自由。沒人知道郭氏後來去了哪裡,只知道她丈夫在1927年向移民局報案,說他遭太太遺棄,因為郭氏抱怨他不給錢,所以跟別的男人跑了。


Photo Credits: Juwin Liu


Photo Credits: Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

http://highliuding2.pixnet.net/blog
///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1912年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-30 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1912

Tye Leung Schulze became the first Chinese-American woman to vote in the presidential primary.

Tye Leung was born in San Francisco in 1887. When she was 14, her parents arranged for her to marry an older man. She ran away and sought refuge with Donaldina Cameron. She became the first Chinese-American woman to pass the civil service examination. Not only was she the first Chinese woman hired to work at Angel Island, but she also became the first Chinese-American woman to vote in a presidential primary election when she cast a ballot in San Francisco on May 19, 1912.

梁亞娣(Tye Leung Schulze)在1887年生於舊金山。她14歲時,父母就安排她嫁給一個年長的男士。梁亞娣勇敢的離家去找金美倫傳教士學英文、研究基督教,後來成為第一位通過美國政府文官考試的華人女性。1912年的美國總統初選,梁亞娣是第一位有資格投票選舉的華人女性,而全美國女性到 8 年後才有投票權。舊金山紀事報說:梁亞娣投票選總統,是女性完全解放的現代運動。梁亞娣因為嫁給白人,不得不辭去合法的政府工作,但她繼續為舊金山華人提供翻譯及社會服務,深受華人尊重。她於85歲時辭世。梁亞娣一直勇敢的反抗任何加諸於她身上的限制,創造屬於自己的榮譽、尊嚴。她從未參加任何全國性的組織,也沒有任何法案以她命名。她的傳奇來自於她一生全心全意的投入反抗人類的偏見與固執。


Photo Credits: Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

http://highliuding2.pixnet.net/blog/post/83838594-%E3%80%8Cherstory%E3%80%8D1912%E5%B9%B4%E7%BE%8E%E5%9C%8B%E8%8F%AF%E4%BA%BA%E5%A5%B3%E6%80%A7%E6%B3%95%E5%BE%8B%E5%8F%B2---%E6%AD%A4%E5%B1%95%E7%8D%BB
///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1909年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-30 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1909
The Angry Angel of Chinatown, Donaldina Cameron, rescued 3000 Chinese slave girls.
Donaldina Cameron ( July 26, 1869-January 4, 1968 )was a Presbyterian missionary who advocated for social justice. She rescued and educated more than 3000 Chinese immigrant girls and women who were sold into slavery during her ministry from 1895 to 1934. Cameron House still stands today in San Francisco.

金美倫(Donaldina Cameron)被稱為「中國城的憤怒天使」,她是位白人傳教士,於1895年服務於舊金山中國城的「東方傳道少女之家」。她痛恨人蛇集團對中國女孩的凌虐,經常伴著警察、帶著斧頭,把這群被迫賣淫的中國女孩子從地板下、牆壁中救出來。在她主持「東方傳道少女之家」的40年間,救出了至少 3,000 位華裔小女孩。金美倫被這些小女孩尊稱為「老母」,但人口販子稱她為「白鬼」。「東方傳道少女之家」在1942年改名為「金美倫堂」,位於舊金山沙加緬度街920號,是有名的歷史地標。


Photo Credits: Ted Schulze

http://highliuding2.pixnet.net/blog/post/83835795-%E3%80%8Cherstory%E3%80%8D1909%E5%B9%B4%E7%BE%8E%E5%9C%8B%E8%8F%AF%E4%BA%BA%E5%A5%B3%E6%80%A7%E6%B3%95%E5%BE%8B%E5%8F%B2---%E6%AD%A4%E5%B1%95%E7%8D%BB
///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

贏了一場在喬治亞特蘭大市聯邦法院的一樁案件。

2017-10-30 | 作者: chiu | 類別: 其他, Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

官司贏了之後

五年前開始的一個老案子,在喬治亞州亞特蘭大市的聯邦法院展開。
被告是53歲的台灣女士,她丈夫的生意在美國做得非常大,招來同行嫉妒,透過丈夫在公司的情婦去海關密告丈夫逃漏稅。發現氣氛不對,丈夫及合夥人全都躲到中國了。
女士因為捨不得中斷兒女的教育,而且自覺無罪,就留在喬治亞。
這下不得了了,找不到獵物的檢察官對她可不客氣,攻擊力道凶狠,非將陳小姐至於死地不可。United States v Jennifer Chen 的刑事案件就成立了。
兩個窮凶極惡的檢察官在一邊,我及兩位我找來的喬治亞資深白人律師在另外一邊,唇槍舌戰,第一次因為陪審團無法有共識,法官判再審,這次陳女士重獲自由了。這是喬治亞聯邦法庭137年來第三次有被告贏。
我很高興的問陳女士是否要慶祝一下?
她淡淡的、哀怨的說,公司被搞垮了,丈夫也離婚了,小孩在悲情中長大,我現在五十多歲卻得重新開始,有什麼好慶祝的?

「Herstory」1909年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1909

Bow Kum's murder led to the Chinatown gang war.

Born to a poor family in Guangdong, Bow Kum was sold by her parents for $40 and later bought by Lau He Dong, a member of the Snakehead gang in San Francisco, for $3,000.

Lau fell in love with her, but Bow Kum chose to marry a gardener and ran away with him to New York. Lau's love quickly turned to hate and he asked his gang to seek revenge. On August 15,1909, Bow Kum was brutally murdered. Her husband was also part of a Chinese gang and they fought back. The war between the Chinatown gangs lasted more than a year. On January 11,1910, the alleged killers, Lau He Dong and Lau Shong, were acquitted because each of their gangs produced contradictory evidence, and the jury could not decide who the real killers were.

The U.S. and the Chinese government brokered talks between the rival gangs at the end of 1910. New York's Chinatown eventually regained its peace in 1913.

甘苞(Bow Kum)是廣東窮人家的女兒,被父母以40美元的代價賣給人蛇,隨後又被以3,000 美元的高價,轉賣給舊金山幫派頭目劉喜東。劉喜東很快就愛上了美艷的甘苞,只是甘苞愛的是林姓園丁,並跟他私奔到紐約。劉喜東向紐約的協勝堂求援,協勝堂要求林姓園丁所屬的安良堂還錢或還人,但遭到拒絕。

1909年8月15日,兩個殺手潛入甘苞家中將她謀殺。消息震驚了全紐約,一場血腥的幫派大戰就此展開。1910年1月,兇手被陪審團判無罪,因為兩派證人對兇手當時的行蹤供詞不一,陪審團因此無法將兇手定罪。1910年底,美國及中國政府正式出面,安排安良堂及協勝堂簽署停火協議,直到1913年,紐約中國城才恢復過往的繁榮。


The New York Times reported Bow Kum’s murder on August 16, 1909.


The New York Times reported the acquittal of Bow Kum’s killers.
Photo Credits: New York Times

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1898年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-24 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1898

In United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), the Court ruled that practically everyone born in the United States is a U.S. citizen.

Wong Kim Ark, who was born in San Francisco to Chinese parents around 1871, was denied re-entry to the United States after a trip abroad in 1894. He challenged the government's refusal to recognize his citizenship. The Supreme Court ruled in his favor, holding that the citizenship language in the Fourteenth Amendment encompassed essentially everyone born in the U.S.—even the U.S.-born children of foreigners—and could not be limited in its effect by an act of Congress.

黃金德(Wong Kim Ark)生於美國舊金山,父母都是美國合法居民。黃金德1890年回中國,再返美時,海關認定他是美國公民而允許他入境。1894年,黃金德再次前往中國,1895年返美時,卻因排華法案而被拒絕入境,黃金德乃提起訴訟。

1897年,在United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) 一案中, 最高法院大法官認定:所有在美國出生的華人後裔,其父母非中國外交官員或公職人員,且在美國擁有永久住所者,在出生時即為美國公民。黃金德打贏這場官司後,他的三個兒子也都拿到公民權。「在美國出生,即為美國公民」的法理,掀起外國孕婦前往美國生產的「生育旅遊」潮。


Photo Credits: Wikipedia


Grand daughter (left) and great granddaughter (middle) of Wong Kim Ark and Dr. Chang C. Chen (right).

黃金德的孫女(左一)與曾孫女(中)與作者合影\

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1896年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

2017-10-24 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

1896

Polly Bemis became a legendary Chinese-American pioneer.

Polly Bemis was sold by her peasant father for two bags of much-needed seed. She was smuggled into the United States in 1872 and sold as a slave in San Francisco. In 1894, she married Charles Bemis to prevent herself from being deported.

She later gained her residence paper because she was able to prove that she could not apply in time due to a major snowstorm in Idaho in 1895.

Her cabin, known as Polly Bemis House, became a museum and was placed on the National Register of Historical Places in 1988. Her story was fictionalized in the 1991 film: A Thousand Pieces of Gold.

蒙古裔的Polly Bemis生在廣東,她被父親以兩袋種子的代價賣掉,又被轉賣到美國,最後在愛德荷州沃倫的地方定居。她任勞任怨、堅忍不拔,不但救了她先生的性命,也贏得了當地居民的友誼。

「吉爾里法案」通過後,1895年Polly Bemis和其他50名住在愛德荷的中國人,因為沒有居留權而將被驅逐出境,還好Polly Bemis證明當時當地下了一場大雪,交通中斷,迫使他們無法出門辦居留手續,Polly Bemis因禍得福,於1896年獲得美國永久居留權。

Polly Bemis是荒涼的愛達荷中部最早的墾荒者之一,她所居住的小木屋現已成為國家級的史蹟。她於1933年過世,享年80歲。她的生平被拍成電影「千金」。在父親眼中只值兩袋種子的Polly Bemis,在美國邊疆綻放出璀璨的花朵,傳播慈愛、溫柔、不屈的女性傳統美德,是美國華人女性的不朽傳奇。


Photo Credits: Iowa State Archive


Photo Credits: Iowa State Archives

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1885年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1885

In Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473(1885), Mamie Tape fought for the right to public education.

Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473 (1885) was a landmark case in the California Supreme Court. In 1884, Mamie, then eight years old, was denied admission to the Spring Valley School due to her Chinese ancestry. Her parents sued the San Francisco Board of Education and won. Their argument was that the school violated California Political Code. The California Supreme Court upheld the decision. Justice McGuire wrote, "To deny a child, born of Chinese parents in this state, entrance to the public schools would be a violation of the law of the state and the Constitution of the United States."

A bill was quickly passed to establish the Oriental Public School in San Francisco. The school was renamed Gordon J. Lau Elementary School in 1998.

1848年以來,加州掀起淘金熱,短短一年就30萬人擠到加州,因為激增的人口,政府設立了7所公立學校。1852年,舊金山已有兩萬華人居民。1884年,出身富裕的華裔女孩 Mamie Tape 時年8歲,父母打算讓她就讀公立小學卻被拒收,因為當時的公立小學只收白人。

她的父母一狀告到加州最高法院,獲得勝訴。但舊金山教育委員會說服加州州議會,通過設置華裔專校的法案,讓華裔只能就讀華裔小學,堅決貫徹種族隔離政策。舊金山也因此在1859年成立第一所華人小學「東方公立小學」。此校經過多次更名,現為「劉貴明小學」,紀念這位人權鬥士。

Photo Credits: California State Archives, Wikipedia

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

「Herstory」1882年美國華人女性法律史///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur in 1882.

It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in the U.S. history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S. - China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration.

The Act was initially intended to last for ten years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act becoming permanent in 1902. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent a specific ethnic group from immigrating to the United States. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act of 1943.

「排華法案」的內容為:

1. 停止華工及其眷屬境十年。

2. 不准境內華人歸化為美國公民。

3. 華人一旦回中國探親,就不能再回美國。

4. 州法院和聯邦法院不得允許華人歸化為美國公民。

在「排華法案」於1892年即將到期前,國會再通過「吉爾里法案」將「排華法案」延長十年。直到1943年,中國成為美國第二次世界大戰的盟友,「排華法案」才被廢除。

Photo Credits: Wikipedia

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

邱彰律師打贏了一個非法居留、可能被遣返的案子。

2017-10-23 | 作者: chiu | 類別: Herstory 美國華人女性法律史 巡迴展覽

邱彰律師今天打贏了一個非法居留、可能被遣返的案子。

客戶是40多歲的一對福建夫妻,來美國已二十多年,官司前後打了十多年才轉到我這裡。這是一個證據非常弱的案子,這對夫妻很有可能被遞解出境。

可是助理無意中提到,當事人有個十九歲美國出生的兒子陳澤民。今年8月5日,瞞著父母,加入了美國海軍陸戰隊,加入後才寫一封信告訴父母。我馬上說,如此重要的信怎麼可以不上交法庭?要求他們連夜回家取信。

今天出庭的第一件事,我就把此信交給法官和檢查官一人一份。五十多歲的女法官讀完信,臉色微紅,對客戶說:「你有個好兒子。」

在法庭的最後陳述時段,我提問當事人:你有兒子嗎?回答有。

你的兒子陳澤民多大了?19歲。

他現在在哪裡?他在今年8月5日加入了海軍陸戰隊。

他告訴你他加入海軍的決定了嗎?當時沒有。

你知道為什麼嗎?他知道我們會非常擔心。

你擔心什麼?他是我們唯一的孩子。

你現在支持他的決定嗎?是的!

為什麼?因為美國已經庇護我們這麼多年,我們想償還我們的債務。

對話至此,我看女法官眼睛有點紅了。接下來法官說:「這不是一個有力的案子。然而,我實在不能憑良心將一名海軍士兵的父母趕出這個國家。因此,我運用我的酌處權,給予他們所尋求的救濟,讓他們在美國合法居留,這樣一名海軍士兵就會知道,他是在為他的父母所在的國家而戰。」

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